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How Healthy Are Your Bones?

Updated: Nov 2

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What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a condition that affects the bones, making them weaker and more brittle. Brittle bones leads to an increased risk of fractures. This is because the bone density, which refers to the amount of minerals in the bones, decreases with age resulting in a loss of strength and stability.

Osteoporosis is more common in older adults, particularly women, and can have serious consequences for mobility and quality of life. A nutrient dense diet is crucial for strong bones healthy ageing.

What are the Risk Factors for Osteoporosis?

There are several risk factors for osteoporosis, including genetics, age, gender, and lifestyle factors. Women are more prone to developing osteoporosis than men because they have smaller and thinner bones than men.

How Does Menopause Affect Bone Health?

In women bone density decreases more rapidly after menopause due to a decline in oestrogen which is essential for healthy bones. Other risk factors include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, a sedentary lifestyle, a diet low in calcium and vitamin D, and certain medical conditions such as hyperthyroidism and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

How to Check Your Bone Density

A bone density test is a simple and painless way to check your bone density and assess the risk of osteoporosis. This test, known as a DXA scan, measures bone mineral density in the hip and spine, and can identify individuals at risk of developing osteoporosis.

It is recommended that women over the age of 65, and men over the age of 70, have a bone density test.

Osteoporosis doesn't just affect your bones—it's like a domino effect that can impact other aspects of your health:

  • Fractures: Osteoporosis weakens bones, making them more prone to fractures, especially in the hips, spine, and wrists. These fractures can lead to pain, reduced mobility, and even disability.

  • Back Pain: As vertebrae weaken due to osteoporosis, they're more susceptible to fractures. These fractures can lead to chronic back pain, decreased quality of life, and even changes in posture.

  • Kyphosis (Dowager's Hump): Multiple vertebral fractures caused by osteoporosis can lead to a stooped posture known as kyphosis. This not only affects your appearance but can also impact your lung capacity and overall comfort.

  • Decreased Mobility: Osteoporosis-related fractures and bone loss can reduce your overall mobility, making it harder to perform everyday activities.

  • Increased Fall Risk: Weaker bones and decreased mobility increase the risk of falls, which can lead to further fractures and injuries.

  • Nutritional Concerns: Osteoporosis often highlights the importance of bone-friendly nutrients like calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K. Deficiencies in these nutrients can have broader health implications.

  • Heart Health: Emerging research suggests a link between osteoporosis and heart health. Some studies have found that atherosclerosis—a build up of plaque in the arteries—might also be associated with bone loss.

  • Oestrogen and Hormonal Health: Osteoporosis is more common in women after menopause, when oestrogen levels decline. Hormonal imbalances can have far-reaching effects on various bodily systems. HRT may be a good option for some women.

Remember, your bones are your body's scaffolding, providing structure and support. Nurturing bone health isn't just about preventing osteoporosis, it's about promoting overall wellness and preventing a cascade of health concerns.

How To Prevent Osteoporosis

woman's hands holding pink weights

Nutrition and Lifestyle Steps for Healthy Bones

While certain risk factors, such as genetics and age cannot be changed, there are several steps you can take to prevent osteoporosis.

These include:

  1. Exercise regularly: Weight-bearing exercises such as walking, jogging, and weightlifting can help to improve bone density and strength.

  2. Get enough calcium and vitamin D: These nutrients are essential for bone health, and can be obtained from dairy products, leafy greens, fortified cereals, and supplements.

  3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption: Both smoking and excessive alcohol intake can decrease bone density and increase the risk of fractures.

  4. Limit caffeine intake: High levels of caffeine intake can interfere with calcium absorption and increase the risk of osteoporosis.

  5. Manage medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as hyperthyroidism and inflammatory bowel disease, can increase the risk of osteoporosis. Managing these conditions can help to prevent osteoporosis.

Nutrition Tips for Preventing Osteoporosis

broccoli on a wooden chopping board

How Does Nutrition Help Build Healthy Bones?

Nutrition plays a crucial role in preventing osteoporosis. Calcium and vitamin D are two of the most important nutrients. Calcium is necessary for bone health, and you can get this from dairy products, leafy greens, and fortified foods.

Vitamin D and Bone Health

Vitamin D is important for calcium absorption, and you can get this from sunlight, fatty fish such as salmon, and supplements. Calcium and vitamin D are the dynamic duo when it comes to bone health. Calcium is the primary building block of bones, while vitamin D enhances calcium absorption. Including calcium-rich foods such as dairy products, leafy greens, and fortified foods in your diet, alongside regular exposure to sunlight for vitamin D synthesis, can significantly improve bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

Magnesium and Calcium

Magnesium is a hidden gem for bone health. Magnesium aids in calcium absorption and stimulates the production of calcitonin, a hormone that helps regulate calcium levels. Incorporate magnesium-rich foods like nuts, seeds, whole grains, and leafy vegetables into your diet to support optimal bone health. Other nutrients that may help to prevent osteoporosis include magnesium, vitamin K, and zinc.

The Power of Protein for Bone Health

Protein is essential for the formation and maintenance of bones. Including sources of lean protein, such as poultry, fish, beans, and tofu, can help maintain bone density and support overall bone health. A well-balanced diet with adequate protein is especially important for women, as they are at a higher risk of bone loss after menopause.

Nutrients to Support Collagen Production

Collagen is a critical component of bone structure, providing flexibility and resilience. Vitamin C, found in fruits and vegetables like oranges, strawberries, and bell peppers, plays a key role in collagen synthesis. Additionally, foods rich in antioxidants, like berries and green tea, protect collagen from damage caused by free radicals.

Eat a Rainbow of Fruit and Vegetables

A diet rich in fruits and vegetables offers a plethora of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that promote overall bone health. These nutrient-dense foods also have anti-inflammatory properties, which can reduce the risk of bone loss caused by chronic inflammation.

Sodium and Potassium Balance

Excessive sodium intake can lead to calcium loss through urine, weakening bones over time. On the other hand, potassium helps maintain calcium levels and reduces calcium excretion. Strive to reduce sodium intake from processed foods and focus on potassium-rich foods like bananas, sweet potatoes, and leafy greens.

The Importance of Nutrition for Preventing Osteoporosis

A diet that is high in calcium, vitamin D, and other bone-healthy nutrients can help to improve bone density. This can reduce the risk of fractures. It is important to eat a well-balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and dairy products. In addition, avoiding excessive caffeine and alcohol intake, and not smoking, can also help to maintain bone health.

Osteoporosis is a serious condition that can have significant consequences for mobility and quality of life. While certain risk factors cannot be changed, there are several steps you can take to prevent osteoporosis. Try to exercise regularly and eat a diet that is high in calcium, vitamin D, and other bone-healthy nutrients. Reduce alcohol consumption and quit smoking. A bone density test can also check if you are at risk of developing osteoporosis.

Remember, it’s never too late to prioritise your bone health and take proactive steps towards a stronger, healthier you. Early intervention and treatment is key! So, let’s flourish after 40, for a brighter future ahead! Book your FREE Health Review with Lisa at Cheshire Nutrition in Manchester to find out how personalised nutrition can help you.

Disclaimer: This blog post is for informational purposes only and should not replace professional medical advice. If you have concerns about osteoporosis or bone health, consult a healthcare professional for personalised guidance.


  • Weaver, C. M., Alexander, D. D., Boushey, C. J., Dawson-Hughes, B., Lappe, J. M., LeBoff, M. S., ... & Wang, Y. (2016). Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of fractures: an updated meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. Osteoporosis International, 27(1), 367-376.

  • Bonjour, J. P., Benoit, V., Rousseau, B., & Souberbielle, J. C. (2013). Consumption of vitamin D-and calcium-fortified soft white cheese lowers the biochemical marker of bone resorption TRAP 5b in postmenopausal women at moderate risk of osteoporosis fractures. Journal of Nutrition, 143(4), 340-344.

  • Darling, A. L., Millward, D. J., Torgerson, D. J., Hewitt, C. E., & Lanham-New, S. A. (2009). Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(6), 1674-1692.

  • Mangano, K. M., Sahni, S., Kiel, D. P., Tucker, K. L., Dufour, A. B., Hannan, M. T., & McLean, R. R. (2017). Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 105(3), 714-722.

  • Tucker, K. L., Hannan, M. T., Kiel, D. P., & Cupples, L. A. (2006). Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83(4), 1234-1241.

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